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Discussion pertaining to the care of newborn animals, primarily mammals. This group will share information on proper care and techniques for neonates, especially for those, but not limited to, who work in a zoo nursery setting.

  • Founded: Oct 28, 2000
  • Members: 114


    Suggested Reading


    (2007). Hand-Rearing Birds. Gage LJ, Duerr RS, editors. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. 456 p.

    (2002). Hand-Rearing Wild and Domestic Mammals. Gage LJ, editor. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. 279 p.

    Jensen, R. G. (1995). Handbook of Milk Composition. San Diego, Academic Press.

    The Handbook of Milk Composition summarizes current information on all aspects of human and bovine milk, including: sampling, storage, composition, as well as specific chapters on major and minor components such as protein, carbohydrates, lipids, electrolytes, minerals, vitamins and hormones. Excellent contribution by Olav T.Oftedal and Sara J. Iverson on Comparative Analysis of Nonhuman Milks: The Gross Composition of Mammalian Milks. A complete taxonomic chart with references.

    * Reliable data on the composition of human, bovine and mammalian milks.

    * Discusses the many factors affecting composition.

    * Problems concerning sampling and analysis are described.

    (1996). Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques. Devra G. Kleiman MEA, Katerina V. Thompson, Susan Lumpkin, editor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 639 p.

    (1994). Infant Diet Care Notebook: Amund W. (ed) 2nd ed. AZA Animal Health Committee. Silver Springs, MD: American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA).

    (1993). The Capture and Care Manual: Capture, Care, Accommodation and Transportation of Wild African Animals. McKenzie AA, editor. Lynnwood Ridge, SA: Wildlife Decision Support Services CC, South African Veterinary Founation. 729 p.

    (1991). Management Guidelines For Exotic Cats. Partridge J, editor. Bristol, UK: The Association of British Wild Animal Keepers.

    (1987). Rearing Young Wild Animals in Captivity. British Veterinary Society Conference, Zoological Society of London, Vetark Publications.

    (1985). Infant Diet/Care Notebook: Taylor SH, Bietz AD, (ed) 1st ed. Wheeling, WV: American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums (AAZPA).



    Andrews, P. (2000). Hand-Rearing of Small Felids. San Juan Bautista, CA, Hexagon Farms: 18. Personal Copy, Click here for PDF

    Bell, K. M., S. M. Rutherfurd, et al. "Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk:. Zoo Biology: n/a-n/a.

    Bell, K. (2010). Spot the Diference: Are Cheetahs Really Just Big Cats? Nottingham, Nottingham University Press.                                                                                Establishing areas in which the domestic cat is a suitable role model for the cheetah, as well as when it is not, this work highlights where the cheetah is unique from the other cats and species-specific in its needs. Highlighting areas such as the ecological, anatomical, and physiological considerations, information is provided on nutrient requirement, metabolism, and reproduction comparisons to the domestic cat. The study is intended to be a useful text for zoo veterinarians, nutritionists, managers, and keepers alike, as well as being of interest to companion animal nutritionists and reproductive physiologists.

    De Waal, H. O., A. Osthoff, et al. (2004). "The composition of African lion (Panthera leo) milk collected a few days postpartum." Mammalian Biology 69(6): 375-383.

    Edwards, M. S. and J. Hawes (1997). "An overview of small felid hand-rearing techniques and a case study for Mexican margay (Leopardus wiedii glaucula) at the Zoological Society of San Diego." International Zoo Yearbook 35(1): 90-94.

    Ewing, M. A. (1984). Felid Infant Diets and Dietary Formulations Used In Hand-Rearing Cubs. M.S. Thesis. Southwest Texas State University: San Marcos, TX, 158p. AZA suported study using information from the Infant Diet Care Notebook. Dr. Robert Jensen and his associates provied analytical milk composition data.

    Levy, J. K., P. C. Crawford, et al. (2001). "Use of adult cat serum to correct failure of passive transfer in kittens." J Amer Vet Med Assoc 219(10): 1401-1405.

    Osthoff, G., A. Hugo, et al. (2007). "The composition of serval (Felis serval) milk during mid-lactation." Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 147(2): 237-41.

    Osthoff, G., A. Hugo, et al. (2006). "The composition of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) milk." Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol.

    Richardson D. (1997). "Hand Rearing Exotic Felids". In: Partridge J, editor. Management Guidelines for Exotic Cats. Bristol, UK: The Association of British Wild Animal Keepers. p 116-117.   


    Hoof Stock

    Hall-Martin AJ, Skinner JD, Smith A. (1977). "Observations on lactation and milk composition of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardis)." S Afr J Wildlife Res(7):67-71.

    Miller, M., S. Amsel, et al. (2001). "Presumptive copper deficiency in hand-reared captive pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns." J Zoo Wildl Med 32(3): 373-8.

    Rudovsky M, Dunker F, Channon C. (1998). Managing a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Positive Elephant at the San Francisco Zoo: "A pain in the butt for her and us!" San Francisco: San Francisco Zoo. p 9.


    Small Mammals

    Grant K. (2009). Nutrition of tree-dwelling Squirrels. The veterinary clinics of North America 12(2):287-297, ix.



    Whittier, C. A., L. A. Milligan, et al. "Proximate composition of milk from free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)." Zoo Biology: n/a-n/a.

    Sackett, G. P., G. C. Ruppentahal, et al. (2006). Nursery Rearing of Nonhuman Primates in the 21st Century Springer.

    Clingerman KJ, Summers L. 2005. Development of a body condition scoring system for nonhuman primates using (Macaca mulatta) as a model. New York, NY, ETATS-UNIS: Nature Publishing Group. 6 p. (PDF Chart)


    Chesney, R. W., G. E. Hedberg, et al. (2009). "Does taurine deficiency cause metabolic bone disease and rickets in polar bear cubs raised in captivity?" Adv Exp Med Biol 643: 325-31.